Issues / Labor, Trade, & Finance
Since the mid-1980s, there has been a dramatic increase in the magnitude of international flows of portfolio investment (PI), especially from countries in the North to emerging market economies across the South.
The global economic integration of trade, investment, and finance is raising new issues for U.S. foreign economic policy.
Since the early 1980s, bankers working together with national policymakers and officials at such international financial institutions (IFIs) as the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund (IMF)have largely succeeded in deregulating the global banking system.
Throughout the 1980s and 1990s the U.S. has been a principal force in imposing Structural Adjustment Programs (SAPs) on most countries of the South.
The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is the central agency for enforcing the Bretton Woods Articles of Agreement, whose terms serve as its charter.
With South Korea facing serious economic problems and North Korea nearing political collapse, the Korean peninsula is entering a period of turbulence and change.
Tax policy becomes foreign policy when companies operate outside their headquarters country and are subjected to tax laws of multiple jurisdictions.
Advocacy by human rights groups, repeated media exposure, and reaction to legislative proposals advanced to ban products made by child labor have led to widespread acknowledgment that child labor is a serious problem in the world.
A nonaligned, economically autarkic, one-party state under harsh military rule since 1962, Burma has metamorphosed into a test case for action on several fronts: human rights in Southeast Asia, international trade relations and the World Trade Organization (WTO), the growing worldwide heroin epidemic, and the role of foreign investors in supporting dictatorships.
Investment funds, established to provide capital for private enterprises and sponsored by government agencies and multinational institutions, are increasing in number every year.