Articles by Carol Welch

Greening the Bretton Woods Institutions

October 11, 2005 | The Bretton Woods Institutions (BWIs)—the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund (IMF)—have come under increased scrutiny and criticism over the past several years.

Republican Rule and the IFIs

December 1, 2000 | The U.S. has a long history, spanning both Republican and Democratic administrations, of advocating openness and accountability at the IFIs.

The IMF and Good Governance

October 1, 1998 | The IMF was created as the "guardian" of the global economy, promoting unimpeded trade and ensuring that national exchange rates would stay within set values.

Structural Adjustment Programs

April 1, 1998 | Throughout the 1980s and 1990s the U.S. has been a principal force in imposing Structural Adjustment Programs (SAPs) on most countries of the South.