Regions / Africa
Despite Clintons visit, the U.S. has failed to formulate a coherent policy with respect to Africa.
Since the mid-1980s, there has been a dramatic increase in the magnitude of international flows of portfolio investment (PI), especially from countries in the North to emerging market economies across the South.
Eritreas independence from Ethiopia became official in May 1993, through a United Nations-monitored referendum in which 99.8% of the voters opted for sovereignty.
Sudans size, strategic location, and as-yet-unexploited oil reserves made it a cold war target of superpower intervention.
Mobutu's departure has raised Congolese hopes for a better future, but many are concerned about reported rebel human rights abuses and an ambiguous commitment to democracy.
The absence of a coherent U.S. foreign policy agendaexcept in the expansion of exports and investments to promising new marketsleaves U.S. policy decisions at the mercy of old and new prejudices, while ad hoc response to crises becomes more the norm than the exception.
The U.S. views Libya and Sudan as rogue states that should be contained by providing U.S. military aid to neighboring countries.
For 20 years the gap has been widening between the level of economic development in Africa and every other area of the world.
In June 1993 Nigerias military, led by General Ibrahim Babangida, annulled election results, thereby blocking the inauguration of the countrys first civilian president in a decade.
For many in the U.S., Somalia is viewed as a powerful symbol of United Nations peacekeeping failure.