For most of the worlds poorest countries, multilateral debt looms larger than other debts because of the IFIs status as "preferred creditors," as providers of core development and balance-of-payment loans.
The twenty-first century requires new paths that encourage exchanges of goods, capital, and people that enhance the social and environmental common good and that discourage or stop those exchanges that undermine healthy communities, a clean environment, and dignified work.
The Export-Import Bank (Eximbank) is an independent U.S. government agency established in 1934 to create jobs through exports.
The Clinton administration went further than Reagan and Bush, announcing in 1993 that all U.S. foreign policy would be guided by the doctrine of "enlargement," aimed at expanding the community of democratic states.
The Overseas Private Investment Corporation (OPIC), a wholly owned government corporation established in 1971, provides taxpayer-backed loans, loan guarantees, and insurance to U.S. businesses for investments in "politically risky" countries.
FPIF Corporate Welfare Package
Instead of consulting with Russia over key foreign policy issues such as the Iraq bombings and allied policy toward former Yugoslavia, Washington has attempted to steer Moscow into a diplomatic backwater where it can exert little global influence.
An alternative package of architectural reforms: Bretton Woods Light
In the past three decades, protecting the global environment has emerged as one of the major challenges in international relations.
In practice, however, Washingtons legacies of neglect and of inappropriate policies toward Africa have remained largely in place with the same overall guidelines