Regions / Africa
Eritreas independence from Ethiopia became official in May 1993, through a United Nations-monitored referendum in which 99.8% of the voters opted for sovereignty.
Sudans size, strategic location, and as-yet-unexploited oil reserves made it a cold war target of superpower intervention.
Mobutu's departure has raised Congolese hopes for a better future, but many are concerned about reported rebel human rights abuses and an ambiguous commitment to democracy.
The absence of a coherent U.S. foreign policy agendaexcept in the expansion of exports and investments to promising new marketsleaves U.S. policy decisions at the mercy of old and new prejudices, while ad hoc response to crises becomes more the norm than the exception.
For 20 years the gap has been widening between the level of economic development in Africa and every other area of the world.
In June 1993 Nigerias military, led by General Ibrahim Babangida, annulled election results, thereby blocking the inauguration of the countrys first civilian president in a decade.
For many in the U.S., Somalia is viewed as a powerful symbol of United Nations peacekeeping failure.
Since 1994 U.S. statements regarding a newly democratic South Africa, under the leadership of Nelson Mandela and the African National Congress (ANC) have frequently been cast in the language of a love fest.
The international community, which failed to act when the crisis began, now faces a major challenge in Burundi and, more widely, in Central Africa.
The U.S. views Libya and Sudan as rogue states that should be contained by providing U.S. military aid to neighboring countries.